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Fire Team Operations Course

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The rewrite is available here: Draft:Fireteam_Operations_Course

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[hr][table][tr][th][b][size=4]Course[/size][/b]:[/th][th][size=4][font=tahoma, helvetica, arial, sans-serif][b]Fireteam Operations Course[/b][/font][/size][/th][/tr] [tr][td][b][size=4]Date:[/size][/b][/td][td][size=4]YYYY-MM-DD[/size][/td][/tr] [tr][td][b][size=4]Time:[/size][/b][/td][td][size=4]HHMMz[/size][/td][/tr] [tr][td][b][size=4]Prerequisites:[/size][/b][/td][td][font=tahoma, helvetica, arial, sans-serif][url=http://www.unitedoperations.net/wiki/Getting_Started_Guide_(Arma_3)#Addon_Synchronization_-_ArmA3Sync]Properly installed & Synchronized addons[/url][/font] [font=tahoma, helvetica, arial, sans-serif]UOTC Familiarization Course[/font] [font=tahoma, helvetica, arial, sans-serif]UOTC Land Navigation Course[/font] [font=tahoma, helvetica, arial, sans-serif]UOTC FTP 1 and FTP 2[/font][/td][/tr] [tr][td][b][size=4]Maximum Participants:[/size][/b][/td][td][size=4]4 Participants per available Instructor, max. 16 Participants whole[/size][/td][/tr][/table][hr][table] [tr][td][b]What:[/b][/td][td]The UOTC Fireteam Operations Course is designed to directly involve participants in the actual instruction process. FTOPS teaches the WHY and WHEN aspects of the content introduced in Familiarization, Land Nav and FTP 1 and 2. Parts are: Terrain Analysis, Locating Enemies, Use of Formations, Cover & Concealment, Covering Sectors, Noise Discipline, Ranging and Winning the Fight.[/td][/tr] [tr][td][b]Why:[/b][/td][td][font=tahoma, helvetica, arial, sans-serif]To introduce Fireteam Members to advanced topics of infantry warfare and prepare interested players for the Fireteam Leadership Course.[/font][/td][/tr] [tr][td][b]Where:[/b][/td][td]Training Server (SRV2) & Teamspeak.[/td][/tr] [tr][td][b]Remarks:[/b][/td][td]1) Ignoring the prerequisites or semi-passive activity can lead to [b][i]instantaneous exclusion[/i][/b] from the course by the Chief Instructor[/td][/tr] [tr][td][b]Sign-Up:[/b][/td][td]Nickname (ingame/ts) example (Lt_Foobar/LtFoobar)[/td][/tr][/table][hr][b]Attendees (0/16):[/b]

[b]Reserves:[/b]

Lesson Plan

Using this document:

Instructor’s actions. This is what the instructor will do with the participants.
Course content. Designed to be covered but not read verbatim.
“Quotes or orders as examples.” Modify as needed.
Remarks or main teaching points - to be considered by instructors but not read aloud.

Course Prerequisites

This course requires:

  • UOTC Familiarization Course
  • UOTC Land Navigation
  • UOTC FTP 1 and FTP 2

Introduction

Introduction of instructor and assistants;
Introduce yourself and you helpers

Behaviour Rules

Quickly outline behavioural standards participants are expected to abide by during the course.

  • Do not interrupt the course.
  • If you have to leave or take a break, notify via side chat and do so quietly.
  • Be adviced that once you left the course, no tag will be issued and you are required to sign up for a new course.

Goals:

Explain the goals of the course and that the duration of course is One - two hours.

  • To learn additional skills to be an effective fire team member.

Summary:

  • Preparation
  • Terrain analysis
  • Locating enemy
  • Formation use
  • Using cover and concealment
  • Cover sectors
  • Noise discipline
  • Methods of judging range and winning the firefight
  • Improving communication


While the Fireteam Partical Sessions teach the "HOW", the FTOPS teach "WHY" and introduce "WHEN". FTOPs is the step between FTPs and the Fireteam Leadership Course. This is not a passive course where you listen and instructors talk. You are expected to participate.

Course Start

Designate Fireteams and Fireteam Leaders and pair up with instructors.
Tell them to orbat for a light patrol.
Give them tike to complete the orbat and be formed up.

Preparation

Lecture to participants as one large group.
When preparing for a mission consider the following: Make a note of who is in your squad - write it down. Note the leaders and your buddy. NOTE everyone’s call signs - your platoon, your squad, your fire team and buddy team. Write it down. Note the radio channels for your platoon and squad. Write it down. Count ammo - at the start of a mission count your ammo and assets and write it down. That way if you are asked for an ammo count during a reorg you know how much you need.. Example “Alpha AR needs 500 rounds and 2 frags”. Most the time it will be enough to know what you have left but it is cool and fast to know how much you need if asked.
At the very least you will be aware of what you have for inventory.
Cross load. Sometime team leads will redistribute assets. It may be more effective to have the Base of Fire team provide all their frags to the assault team and the the assault team give extra ammo to the BOF team. As a fireteam you will stay close together so it really shouldn’t matter if your buddy has your extra ammo or if someone else in the fireteam has it. For example if the FTL wants to split up the AT gunner and the AT assistant into to separate buddy teams just follow the FTLs direction. It’s okay to let the FTL know what role you have but don’t keep disputing if the FTL still wants to change things up.
Equipment. Equipment is AT, demo charges, frags, smoke etc.
Supply request. (ACE report) Be clear if you are asked for how much ammo you NEED or how much you HAVE. By default you be asked how much you have.

Patrol Order

Explain that the instructor is the SL and may take control of the team from time to time. The fire team should learn to be flexible enough to respond to the FTL and the SL. Explain that when if the SL calls the team by name he is controlling them himself BUT if he refers to the FTL by name then the FT should wait for the FTLs command before initiating the order. Watch them enroute and provide immediate feedback on communication.

Provide Short briefing for a patrol and give quick details.
"One one Bravo listen up, we will be conducting a routine patrol from here to Syrta. Syrta is one KM northwest. We may encounter enemy infantry fireteams with rifles. You are weapons yellow. Bravo Team Lead (use his/her name). Begin movement in close order, file formation, Move when ready."

Begin patrol by walking in a close order file.
Lecture while walking.


Delivering the lecture during movement will help to keep the training interesting and help reduce boredom. A larger sized class can be problematic in that it may be difficult for everyone to hear the speaker. Radios should NEVER be used for a lecture for two reasons:

  1. It is often uncomfortable for the listener.
  2. More importantly: It emulates and sets a very poor example to the participants. The UOTC proposes to improve gameplay not degrade it. One of the worse habits on the primary is the abuse of the radio. The last thing we need to do in training is to show players that is acceptable to spam the radio with verbal diarrhea. If the class is too large for everyone to hear the lecture during the march then divide into multiple groups and assign more instructors or tighten up the spacing.

Lecture Topics During the Course Patrol

Cover the following topics during the patrol. Stop as applicable to cover the topic during the patrol.

  • Formation Usage
  • Sectors of Fire
  • Halts
  • On the move
  • Cover & concealment
  • Spotting the enemy
  • Referencing
  • Ranging

The intent is to keep players moving and engaged while providing information and examples. Demonstrations are prefered to long explanations. Allow players to practice if possible.

Formation Usage

Discuss the various use of formations. When to use them. Practice them as you discuss them.
In FTOPs we will use file and line almost exclusively.

Practice File - Order a File Formation.

  • File is for moving quickly over a considerable distance. It is easy to control while still maintaining the formation. Quick to deliver fire to the flanks.

Practice Line

  • Line - best formation to deliver coordinated firepower to the front. This formation can be tight or spaced. It is still a line even if it is very tight.

Create a bunched up line fireteam on line and a jagged wide order fireteam on line as demo.

Hi-Low - announce HiLow. Low man must then announce before standing.
Demo the Hi-Low (Need cover to execute). Emphasize that the low man should announce when standing.

Be aware of the other formations and when to use them.
Practice Wedge

  • Wedge - best used when contact is possible. Moderately easy to control. For the purpose of training we will alway use the default of Alpha left and Bravo right for line and wedge formations. FTs by default will always be heavy right. But remember the FTL or SL can change up the order as the situation dictates.

Practice Echelon
Echelon - for combining fireteams or squads into larger formations or when contact is expected from a specific front side.

Sectors of Fire

Lecture (move or halt as applicable). Use assistants (or spawn AI) to provide opportunity to call contacts.
A sector of fire is an area which is required to be covered by fire by an individual, a fire unit (squad or fire team), or a crew-served weapon. Your individual sector of fire may be assigned to you by your leader, or is selected by yourself individually if not otherwise assigned. It is your individual area of responsibility that you observe, cover and engage targets within.

Order a File Formation
Ftops file dirs.jpg

File - front, left, right, rear. Explain that each member alternates the direction of cover.

Order a Line Formation
Ftops line sectors.jpg

Line - Left (rear), front/left, Front/right, Right (rear).

Basic sectors have been presented in the UOTC Familiarization & Formation videos. Practice is conducted in the FTOps.
The concept of sectors of fire can be applied to a variety of situations. For example, when traveling in a fire team wedge, the team leader will watch front, the man on the right will watch right, the man on the left will watch left, and the man in the rear will watch rear.

Wedge FormationSectors of Fire - Wedge Formation

If a four man fire team is told to cover from north to south watching east, a fireteam leader would assign sectors of fire that divide up his sector into four parts. These four parts will typically have some overlap. This is to ensure fire is distributed equally to any targets of opportunity that might present themselves throughout the fire team’s sector. Someone told to cover southeast should never be firing northeast unless otherwise ordered.

If a fire team member is told their sector of fire is to the rear of the fireteam, and the fire team is attacked from the front, the fire team member should continue to watch the rear unless otherwise ordered. Depending on the terrain this should be every 8 seconds more often it the approach the rear is offers lots of concealment to the enemy. If the fire team member decides to turn around and attack enemies to the front, the rear is now left defenseless and is vulnerable to a rear attack. The rear man should check rear every 8 seconds while moving.

A leader may assign you an area to cover. This is your sector of fire. The sector of fire may be defined by cardinal directions (north, east, west, south), degrees or target reference points (which are visible landmarks).

If a leader does not give you an area to cover when you are halted, cover the area in between the man on your right and left. If the man on your right is watching southeast and the man on your left is watching northeast, you should cover east.

  1. Always cover the middle of your sector.
  2. Always cover towards likely contact.
  3. Never cover the same sector as another person.

If someone is covering from North West to North East and another person is covering from South East to South, try to cover the larger gap, which would be North West to South with your focus resting on West as long as west is the direction of most likely contact.

Order the team to stack up on a wall.
Ftops wall dirs.png

Stacked cover sectors.
Order to stack-up on wall and arrange team covering front, front side, front rear, and rear.

Sectors of Fire
Remarks - teaching points
Ensure players:

  • Diligently focus on their sectors.
  • Use DDD for Contact calls.
  • Use the radio only for the first contact call.
  • Cover the rear.

Note: use only very few contacts. The key is to practice covering. Allow players to become bored. Keep opportunities to spot contacts short. Stop the exercise immediately if the team misses a sighting and inform them. Halt the contact and make sure the team sees it.

Halts

Execute halts
Short halt - take a knee, cover your sector and stay quiet. Lower your voice. Don’t move your body. Swivel your head only (do not turn your whole body).
After 10 seconds go prone.
Use cover if it is within a meter or two of your position.
Use shade if available within a meter or two to reduce your visibility.

Long halt (by order) extend out - find cover if it is close (20m).
AR should cover the most likely area where contact is expected.

Halts
Remarks & teaching points
Ensure players:

  • Use cover or concealment.
  • Take a knee or go prone.
  • Minimize movement.

The halt can be used as an segway to discuss the follow on points.

On the Move

Pathfinding
Avoid crests, silhouetting, open areas.
Use terrain to help cover movement. Low areas, trees, rocks, vegetation. But be aware that these same features may be excellent enemy hiding places watch for an ambush.
Plan observation points to scan before moving in areas where you are likely to be seen.
Memorize the map by locating key terrain features that you will expect to see at waypoints enroute.

Examine terrain on map - gullies, depressions, walls, forests, buildings.
Route design including terrain observation and OPs
On the Move
Remarks & teaching points
This is not a navigation or reconnaissance course.

  • Minimize time spent on planning.
  • Look for key terrain for concealment and enemy ambush locations.
  • Create a mental picture of the map.

Cover and Concealment

Ftops cover and concealment.jpg
Lowering visibility by stance, prone, crouching or standing
Practice various stances and explain why stances are so important in none rushed TvT scenarios.
ArmA3 offers a multitude of character stances which are, unfortunately, mostly unused by the broad player base either due to unawareness of their existance or efficiency.
Stances are generally changed using the left CTRL key in combination with the WASD keys.
Highest to lowest these stances are:

  • High Standing (CTRL+W)
  • Normal Standing
  • Normal Standing Gun Left (CTRL+A)
  • Normal Standing Gun far right (CTRL+D)
  • Low Standing (CTRL+S from Normal Standing / CTRL+W from High Crouched)
  • High Crouched (CTRL+S from Low Standing / CTRL+W from Normal Crouched)
  • Normal Crouched
  • Crouched Gun Left (CTRL+A)
  • Crouched Gun far right (CTRL+D)
  • Low Crouched (CTRL+S from Normal Crouched / CTRL+W from Sitting)
  • Sitting (CTRL+S from Low Crouched / CTRL+W from Normal Prone)
  • Normal Prone
  • Low Prone Gun Leaning Right No Scope (CTRL+S)

Impact of Stances

To quickly display how essential stances are to cover and concealment alike we gonna display one situation from 3 different stances:

  • Unit standing straight up watching around the corner
  • Unit leaning left (CTRL+D)
  • Unit crouched leaning far left (X and CTRL+D and E for leaning)

Ftops stances intro.jpg
The position chosen for the character is set so that the unit is able to just see the camera position and anything 1° left of it down the shopping alley.

Alt text
As you can see the whole left side of the unit is in full view. This is a death sentences even when only standing there for a second.
Always remember the the sentence: 'The count of badly concealed units is equal to the amount of incoming grenades.' Never underestimate the enemys capability of reconnaissance!

Alt text
By simply leaning right we now reduced the exposed surface about 60% from the first example tho shoulder, arm and parts of the neck are still heavy visible.

Alt textAlt text
In the last picture we recuced the exposed body matter of the unit to less then 5% by using crouched stance and leaning far left.
Even vital parts of face and neck are covered by the weapon system.
The second image displays the other side of the covered unit.
Do not forget that in all of these stances the character had perfect view on the camera position with clear line to engage.

Emphasize to minimize movement.
Movement will increase your visibility. You can minimize movement by swiveling your head only rather than turning your whole body. By running directly toward someone you are not as visible because are creating less movement than if you move or zig zag across someone’s view. The best way to be seen is to walk or run back and forth in the open, especially on a crest or high spot. Remember this next time you see players doing the call of duty dance as they talk to you. Great when trying to signal an aircraft but not so great in a TvT.

Concealment - practice
Have participants look away and have players (assistants, instructors) hide. Then have participants look at the terrain and find the concealed players. Have hidden players stand (after hiding) to show participants where they were.
Bushes, vegetation, keyholing.

Cover - Lecture/Practice
Walls - explain that not all walls are created equal. Bullets will penetrate a great number of walls in Arma. Explain:
Types of walls for cover

  • Stone - most effective.
  • Metal - variable - poor to moderate protection.
  • Wooden - often poor protection.

Vehicles can be dangerous because they are often a big target for AT or MG fire. When the AT round hits it the collateral damage can be extensive. If a vehicle explodes it can damage infantry near by. Secondary explosions can also cause damage so it is wise to move clear of burning vehicles.

Road defilade - demonstrate and practice
Depressions - good cover for direct fire - lousy for indirect HE.

Slope or crest positioning - demonstrate and practice.
Show players that standing back from a slope break and observing over crest is safer that crawling prone up the edge. You cannot deploy but you can gain significant cover if you crouch or go prone. You are less likely to be crawling back to cover while under fire.

Practice shifting position. Demonstrate deploying and allow practice.
Remember that the word Dick is in unpredictable. You must be a dick to the enemy. MG/AR must always have a have second (and even third) firing position, and shift between them as soon as they start taking fire. Or shift periodically just to be unpredictable. The AR/MG will often be the first to die if they stay in one position and allow the enemy to “fix” them.
Deploy weapons where possible.

Cover and Concealment
Remarks- teaching points
Ensure players:

  • Minimize movement.
  • Behave unpredictable.

Traveling

Order the squad to move using the traveling overwatch and traveling ... in close order. While moving lecture on the following:
There are three team movement techniques to traverse terrain.

  • Traveling
  • Traveling Overwatch
  • Bounding Overwatch

You learned how to execute each team movement technique in the FTP2

The selection of a which movement technique to use is based on the likelihood of enemy contact and the need for speed. Movement techniques are not fixed formations. They refer to the distance between soldiers, teams, and squads that vary based on mission, enemy, terrain, visibility, and any other factors that affects control.

Soldiers must be able to see their fire team leaders. A platoon leader should be able to see his lead squad leader. Leaders control movement with direct speak or hand and arm signals. Use radios only when needed. Any of the three movements can be used with any formation.

Discuss:

Movement
Formation
When
Normally
Used
Characteristics
Control Flexibilitx Speed Security
Traveling Contact
Not Likely
More Less Fastest Least
Traveling
Overwatch
Contact Possible Less More Slower More
Bounding
Overwatch
Contact Expected Most Most Slowest Most

Spotting the Enemy

Ftops spot the enemy.jpg
Likely positions, Review the possible locations of enemy. Look at windows, bushes, edges cover etc. Scanning, Stress importance of maintaining vigilance. Play every CoOp as if it is training for a TVT.

Really look. Explain that many people look at the terrain with lazy eyes and often miss what they are seeing.

If the enemy is smart he/she will not be moving. The enemy will be concealed and you will only see glimpse of weapon or a part of a uniform or a head swivelling.

Remember all of these things and keep in mind that others may be looking for you.

Possible Enemy locations

  • Trees. At the base of a tree near the trunk is often the most common cover available.
  • Bushes, especially on the sides. Sometimes it is tougher to see through the vegetation.
  • Rocks, vehicles, stone walls and stone buildings. Because they afford good solid cover you can expect the enemy at the side or at the top of them.
  • On rooftops especially near cover (roof vents) that may be afforded. Although roofs provide a great vantage point to scan, enemy can be seen on them easily.
  • Windows. Remember that a smart enemy will make himself less exposed and not silhouette by standing-up close to the window. So look carefully at the sides or recessed deeper within the building.
  • Builds can offer concealment and if made of stone can provide cover. Bullets will penetrate many types of walls. Expect the enemy at the edges of walls and buildings.
  • Rubble can also be good locations for hidden enemy.
  • Tall structures. Observers, snipers and even ARs and MGs may utilize tall structures.

Sound - You can locate enemy from sound. You only hear the crack when the weapon firing at you is close.

Practice by having assistants fire different weapons so participants can become familiar with their sound.

Spotting the enemy
Remarks- teaching points
Ensure players:

  • Be keen and focused.
  • Think about suspected positions.
  • Imagine what they would do if they were the enemy.

Referencing

By Landmarks and face directions.
Explain the use of landmarks with the technique of face directions. Discuss that using ACE pointing is only helpful if the player is proximal.
Practice referencing and fire control by designating targets/areas and ordering team to engage targets/areas. Allow participants opportunity to call our targets and or areas by designating.

Face Directions
This method is used to indicate less obvious targets that may hard to locate to players or units looking at the target from the same direction as you are. Rather than using the location of the target on it’s own we use an obvious reference point such as a signpost, bridge, gate, or other such object as a reference. From the point of reference we indicate a face direction as in: left, right, in front, behind, above and below. If helpful we can add a guesstimated range from that reference point.

Explain that referencing can also be used over radio or for reports with the only limitation that for reports to other units cardinal directions should be used instead of face directions.

Example:
"Bravo ... Contact: South, Mid, Infantry; Reference: Two story white house, first floor, left 4 meters ... Seen?"

Ftops ref example.jpg

Pointing...
... with the ACE key binding only works if you are close to someone and they looking in the same general direction you are. It is also very gamey and distasteful to some players. If someone asks you not to use the ACE pointing feature you can accommodate by "talking them in on target" It is a great skill because it works when you are displaced from someone and for the the whole group.

Referencing
Remarks- teaching points

  • Be concise.
  • Explain that pointing is not always an option.

Ranging

250px
Lecture and Practice
Methods of judging range.

There is too much content to lecture all of the material in this section. But the instructor should know the content to respond to questions:

Communication reminder:
Speak of distances by using hundreds or fifties. Never 3 digits. This allows players to easily differentiate between a range and an azimuth (bearing). If you hear Two Zero Zero everyone will know immediately you are referring to a direction. If you say Two Hundred they will know you are referring to a distance of 200 metres.

Importance:
Infantrymen need to be able to estimate range in order to: sight personal weapons correctly, to know what targets are able to be engaged effectively, to be able to accurately identify enemy positions and pass this info along, to be able to accurately call in supporting fires, and to be able to effectively navigate.

Using map skills:
Have players look at map and determine where they are, then calculate the range to a target.
By the distance on the map. Explain that the cross hairs divide a KM square into four 500m. squares and half of each 500m square is 250m.
Can use maptools but that is beyond the scope of the course.

Dead Reckoning:
Knowing what a common target, such as a person looks like at various ranges is also a good way to determine range.

  • 200m: All parts of the body are distinct.
  • 300m: Outline of the face becomes blurred.
  • 400m: Outline of the body remains, but the face is difficult to distinguish.
  • 500m: The body appears to taper from the shoulders; movement of the limbs can be observed.
  • 600m: The head appears as a dot with the body, details are invisible and tapering is noticeable.

Becoming proficient at estimating range accurately generally requires practice.
Estimating or Dead reckoning. Every team member should be continually making guesses at ranges before using the map, rangefinder or binos. Eventually you will get very good at it.
Adjusting from fire:
Set AR at 300m and fire a burst. Adjust after seeing where the rounds hit. Watch tracers or dust from where bullets hit.

Reference range:
Is a good way to estimate range. A football field, soccer pitch and track straight-away are all approximately 100m. Determining the number of these objects that could fit between you and the target and multiply by 100m to find the range.

Halving:
For targets over 500m find the distance to a point halfway between you and the target and multiply by two. Select an object or an area in a direct line, halfway between you and the target, and estimate the range to this midpoint. You can then double the estimation to produce the range to the target.

Binoculars:
Note the mils and range can be determined if you know the ht of an object. Simplified a doorway or man (1.8m ht) is the following distance based on mils:

Mils Distance (m)
1 1800
2.5 700
4.5 400
5 360
10 180
15 120

Interpolate between the increments above. See Appendix 1 for more details

Divide the known size of the target by the mil measurement from the reticle and multiply by 1000
(Estimated Height/Width in Meters x 1000) / (Measured Mils) = (Range In Meters)
(1.6m x 1000) / 2.5 = 640m

Rangefinders:
Simple to use. Tools can be very helpful in estimating range, laser rangefinders and optics can give accurate range information. However the implementation of these tools is outside the scope of this course. Practice as needed

Ranging
Remarks- teaching points
Ensure players:

  • Say range in hundreds or fifties (not 3 digits) Two Hundred - Not - Two Zero Zero
  • Practice is needed. Practice. Practice. Practice.

Winning the Fight

Ftops win the fight.jpg
Lecture to the team.
Suppressive fire should be deliberate and thoughtful. Try make make each shot count. Even when you cannot see the enemy the decision what to target and where to shoot is important. Your FTL will control the team’s rate of fire. You control how effective your aim is.

Fire techniques:

  • Fire low fire than high.
  • Shoot at the base of bushes or just grazing the horizon.
  • Shoot into windows or through thin walls just beside the windows.
  • Imagine where an enemy is, prone or crouched.
  • Fire where you would expect him/her to be.
  • DON’T fire into the middle of the bushes above where the prone enemy would be.
  • DON’T fire into the face a large stone wall or boulder.
  • Fire at the sides or top of walls or rocks where you might expect an enemy to pop out.
  • Use the frag launcher use it on critical spots.
  • Target 203s behind hard cover, into depressions/defilade or inside buildings through windows.


If you see an enemy use your weapons proficiency training to ensure that you kill him. Accuracy counts but often by placing the most number of bullets into the enemy will provide the greatest chance of a kill. It’s okay to deliver 5 or 10 rounds into an enemy. It’s nice to know that you have killed what you hit.

If you are not in stealth mode give enemy bodies a gift. Learn to recognize when an ARMA body is dead or just unconscious. It is unsettling to have an enemy body wake up in the middle of your team and drop a frag amongst everyone.

Winning the fight
Remarks- teaching points
Ensure players:

  • Communicate contact call.
  • Maximize firepower of AR.
  • Use consideration when targeting. (where will the enemy be?)
  • Use 203s.

Fire Control

Ftops fire control.jpg
Order the team online and commence fire on areas or targets. Spawn AI as necessary. Lecture while the team is firing. Use proper command technique and provide the appropriate.

Lecture.
A rate of fire is the speed to fire your weapon. A rate of fire may be assigned by a leader. A rate of fire is typically given in a fire order when a target is meant to be suppressed. The rate of fire will dictate how quickly you are pulling the trigger. You should continue to fire uninterrupted at the rate of fire assigned until otherwise ordered. There are three rates of fire.

  • Rapid rate
  • Normal Rate
  • Slow Rate

Rapid rate:
Used during initial contact to establish suppressing fire. If you are given the order to suppress and a rate of fire is not specified, the default action is to fire at rapid rate for one minute (two magazines at 1 round per second) and then switch to Normal (or sustained rate). Rapid rate is firing one round/burst every one to two seconds until instructed otherwise. Rapid fire should not be used for a prolonged period of time because it uses up a significant amount of ammo and requires frequent barrel changes on machine guns.

  • Service Rifle = 1 round every 1 second
  • Light Machine Guns = 3-6 round burst every 1 second

Give rapid rate order
"One One ... Target Southwest, Mid, Yellow House ... Rapid rate. Fire, fire, fire!"

Give hold fire order
"One One ... Hold fire, Hold fire, Hold fire."

Normal Rate (sustained rate):
Used after establishing suppressing fire. Normal rate is firing one round for every 2-3 seconds until instructed otherwise. This is the rate at which the weapon could reasonably be fired indefinitely without failing.

  • Service Rifle = 1 round every 3-4 seconds
  • Light Machine Guns = 3-6 round burst every 2-3 seconds

Give rapid fire order
"One One ... Same Target ... Normal rate. Fire, fire, fire!"

Give hold fire order
"One One ... Hold fire, Hold fire, Hold fire."

Slow Rate:
Used to engage targets that are intermittently appearing or for greater range to ensure better accuracy or to conserve ammo. Slow rate is firing one round every 6-10 seconds until otherwise instructed. Give slow fire order
"One One ... Same Target ... Slow rate. Fire, fire, fire!"

Watch and shoot:
Cease fire, observe and engage any sudden enemies with rapid fire. This is an order to cease firing until a target is visible, fire at the target until the target is destroyed, and then cease firing. Rather than saying cease fire we use this command when we are weapons green but want to stop firing to listen for the enemy or to conserve ammo.
There are many situations when it is smarter to be silent and listen and look rather than shooting. When silent is it easier for the team to determine a direction of enemy gunfire. Give watch and shoot order
"One One ... Watch and Shoot, Watch and Shoot, Watch and Shoot."
Spawn a team of AI infantry as a target.

Prep AT:
Used when an AT weapon is within the fire team. In the event you have more than one AT instruct the individual to PREP AT. If the terrain and time permits the AT can move away from the team before firing or the rest of team should move away from the AT when he/she is positioned to fire to avoid collateral injuries in the event that the AT is targeted after firing. If the target is not armour then the team then should 'pick up the slack' and begin to suppress to cover the AT as he attempts to engage.

PrepFrags
Usually includes the role(s) required to frag and normally the order frag out will be given as soon as the last "ready" is announced.
FTL "Buddy 3 ... Prep Frags"
RM "Ready"
Gren "Buddy 3 Ready"
FTL "Frag out!"

Use your ammo but don’t waste it. It is better to have used all your ammo and killed all the enemy than be dead with lots of ammo. You are not saving it for a rainy day. But don’t keep firing at increased rates when you are out of effective range. When you have a target in your sights it is okay to pour on the hurt and fire repeatedly. The team can mass their firepower and expend bullets when there is a decent opportunity to injure or kill the enemy.

Fire Control
Remarks- teaching points
Ensure players:

  • Use appropriate rates of fire.
  • Prioritize contact calls.
  • Stay off the radio.
  • Advise when reloading.

Questions

Halt and consolidate the teams.
Summarize the course. Tell the participants what they learned. Encourage participants to ask questions about the course. Allow them time to chat and provide feedback. Keep answers short and concise.
Suggest that PMs are a great way to provide constructive criticism. Positive feedback is welcome in the forums feedback thread.
Advise that the course is now complete and anyone who would like to do so can stay for a Field Training Exercise. It will last about 20 minutes.

Fireteam Exercise

Provide orders for FT to approach, find and destroy a static target (Enemy Buddy team or BTR). Explain that the instructor is the SL and may take control of the team from time to time. This is okay. The FTL is in charge but the team should easily be able to shift and follow the SLs orders when required. Explain that when if the SL calls the team by name he is controlling them if he refers to the FTL by name then the FT should wait for the FTLs command before initiating the order. Watch them enroute and provide immediate feedback on communication.

Mission objective:
Destroy the enemy asset within 20 minutes, while using cover and concealment and maintaining effective communication at all times.

Allow the players to conduct their movements with a minimum of interruptions.
Reminders (can be provided if the team is quiet and it seems appropriate)
Before movement:

  • Pathfinding - route planning. Very quick assessment. Picture map in head and anticipate upcoming terrain.

During movement:

  • Range to objects.
  • Looking for cover and concealment and anticipating movement if fired upon.
  • When to move and when to commence bounding.
  • Use of noise discipline when closing.
  • Designate sectors and targets for team.
  • Do not operate as a squad or platoon unless there is a shortage of instructors.


After the engagement conduct an AAR provide one good point and two suggestions for improvement, end with a praise for one point that worked well.
Key points to emphasize are cover, concealment and COMMUNICATION.

Fireteam Execise
Remarks- teaching points
Ensure players:

  • Use of direct speech (stay off radios).
  • Use cover and concealment.
  • Communicate.
  • Prioritize contacts.
  • Use the after action report method to supervise and provide feedback. Be prepared to issue short orders if the team stalls or is making a fatal mistake.

Follow Up

  • Provide tags to attendees
  • Forums Post
  • Change Title to [COMPLETED]
  • Lock the thread
  • Add the Attendees and thank them
  • Send a PM to the participants.
  • Ask for positive feedback or compliments to be posted in the UOTC feedback thread (with link) Emphasize that all criticism or suggestions for improvement should be posted as a PM reply. Consider creating a google comment doc if PMs are not available to everyone. Or use a Google Doc survey or questionnaire.

APPENDIX


APPENDIX 1

Ranging with Mils on Binoculars
An Adult Human A Civillian Vehicle
Height 1.8 meters Width 1.5/2.2 meters
mils mils
1 1800 1 2200
1.5 1200 1.5 1467
2 900 2 1100
2.5 720 2.5 880
3 600 3 734
3.5 514 3.5 629
5 360 5 440
10 You Are About To Die! 10 You Are About To Die!

APPENDIX 2

Course Outline
As an Outline use all red marked compressions on the end of each section.