Military Operations in Urban Terrain Course
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- 1 Contribute / Report
- 2 Sign Up Template
- 3 Lesson Plan
- 3.1 Course Prerequisites
- 3.2 Instructor and Assistant Course Directions - MUST READ
- 3.3 Disciplinary Actions and Course Planning
- 3.4 Section 1 - Introduction 
- 3.5 Section 2 - Nature of Urban Operations [--]
- 3.6 Section 3 - Urban Characteristics [--]
- 3.7 1st BIO BREAK 
- 3.8 Section 4 - Urban Threat Potential [--]
- 3.9 Section 5 - Risk Reduction Measures [--]
- 3.10 Section 6 - Conducting Small Unit Urban Operations [--]
- 3.11 2nd BIO BREAK 
- 3.12 Section 7 - MOUT Practice - Room Clearing [--]
- 3.13 Section 8 - MOUT Practice - Village Theater [--]
- 3.14 Section 9 - MOUT Practice - City Theater [--]
- 4 Foot Notes
- 5 Appendix
- 6 Follow Up
Contribute / Report
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[img=http://www.unitedoperations.net/w/images/thumb/3/30/Uotc_mout_header.jpg/800px-Uotc_mout_header.jpg] [hr][table][tr][th][b][size=4]Course[/size][/b]:[/th][th][size=4][font=tahoma, helvetica, arial, sans-serif][b]Military Operations in Urban Terrain Course[/b][/font][/size][/th][/tr] [tr][td][b][size=4]Date:[/size][/b][/td][td][size=4]YYYY-MM-DD[/size][/td][/tr] [tr][td][b][size=4]Time:[/size][/b][/td][td][size=4]HHMMz[/size][/td][/tr] [tr][td][b][size=4]Prerequisites:[/size][/b][/td][td][font=tahoma, helvetica, arial, sans-serif][url=http://www.unitedoperations.net/wiki/Getting_Started_Guide_(Arma_3)#Addon_Synchronization_-_ArmA3Sync]Properly installed & Synchronized addons[/url][/font] [font=tahoma, helvetica, arial, sans-serif][url=http://www.unitedoperations.net/wiki/Familarization_Course_Lesson_Plan]UOTC Familiarization Course V2[/url][/font] [/td][/tr] [tr][td][b][size=4]Maximum Participants:[/size][/b][/td][td][size=4]16 + Chief Instructor & max. 4 Assistants[/size][/td][/tr][/table][hr][table] [tr][td][b]What:[/b][/td][td]The Military Operations in Urban Terrain Course incorporates three topics of urban combat: room clearing, close quarter engagements and combat in towns/cities with vehicle support. Due to its nature the course will be about 120 minutes long of which 80 minutes will be practical education via room clearing, simulated close quarter combat and covered movement through a fake village and city.[/td][/tr] [tr][td][b]Why:[/b][/td][td][font=tahoma, helvetica, arial, sans-serif]To enhance the playerbases performance in urban combat on foot and with vehicle support.[/font][/td][/tr] [tr][td][b]Where:[/b][/td][td]Training Server (SRV2) & Teamspeak.[/td][/tr] [tr][td][b]Remarks:[/b][/td][td]1) Ignoring the prerequisites or semi-passive activity can lead to [b][i]instantaneous exclusion[/i][/b] from the course by the Chief Instructor[/td][/tr] [tr][td][b]Sign-Up:[/b][/td][td]Nickname (ingame/ts) example (Lt_Foobar/LtFoobar)[/td][/tr][/table][hr][b]Attendees (0/6):[/b] [b]Reserves:[/b]
This course requires:
Instructor and Assistant Course Directions - MUST READ
- No bio breaks are included for this length of this session.
- Text marked with [I/A] are directions to help instructors and assistants to perform the course as intended by the office.
- The performance of your course is to be consistent with the up-to-date material.
- For directions on course planning and disciplinary actions while holding the course read the next page.
- To help you avoid confusion we marked sections including scripted content like this:
- Do not repeat what has been stated in that scripted content just read. Only build on top of it or elaborate specific parts out of it for the pure purpose of clarity.
- Always ask participants if one of them can briefly explain what just has been read. Have the section read again if this is not the case and afterwards briefly explain the substance to the participants.
- To remind you about asking we marked the end of all scripted content with: [ASK!]
Disciplinary Actions and Course Planning
Directions for course planning and disciplinary actions
- It is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED to request assistants to join you on the course once the participant sign ups exceed 8 players to keep up the ability to provide timely and personal help
All assistants need to be UOTC junior / senior / aspirant instructors!
- All partaking Assistants need to have read this document.
- Announce that some sections are read out as a script for the sake of course and content consistency. Required links to the script material will be given in channel before the script is read. It is highly recommended to read and listen to the material due to its complexity, especially for players without english as their first language.
- Point out that if the instructor or his assistant asks a question, a confirmation (as in yes/no) is required to speed up the course process. This is also used to identify idling participants.
- Bio break time windows have to be met by the participants; the course will continue w/o repeatings of course material for late participants.
- If a participant has to go for a quick leave, he is to announce this in side chat with the expected time of unresponsiveness. If the time frame exceeds 10 minutes the user is to be removed from the session.
- The chief instructor (who should be the missions admin) removes unresponsive participants in a very short time frame and notes their names for the course report marked as: ‘has to re-attend’.
- The chief instructor (who should be the missions admin) is to immediately remove participants who went absent w/o providing previous notification, as required above.
- When assistant and chief instructor have the feeling that a participant is semi-absently performing the course (being alt-tabbed etc. and just standing by to finish the course) they are to confirm this by taking him aside at mission end and asking him random course material questions to confirm if the tags will be given to him or not. This should be done in private(!) and not in front of other participants!
- If the Chief Instructor needs to perform an unplanned break, he is to give over the admin role to one of his assistants before hand.
- After handing out the tags a course report by the chief instructor is expected to be posted in the signup thread for that particular session.
- Spawning without any gear except a limited IFAK and standard gear (as in earplugs, compass, watch and a 343 radio) is intended.
Section 1 - Introduction 
[I/A] At this point the life material starts, make sure that all instructors and participants are ingame and placed in a school circle at the first instruction board inside the open green hangar north of the spawn.
- Briefly introduce yourself and any assistants.
- Briefly go over the course structure:
Section 1 - ‘Introduction’
Section 2 - ‘Nature of Urban Operations’
Section 3 - ‘Urban Characteristics’
1st BIO BREAK 
Section 4 - ‘Urban Threat Potential’
Section 5 - ‘Risk Reduction Measures’
Section 6 - ‘Conducting Small Unit Urban Operations’
2nd BIO BREAK - 
Section 7 - ‘MOUT Practice - Room Clearing’
Section 8 - ‘MOUT Practice - Village Theater’
Section 9 - ‘MOUT Practice - City Theater’
- Announce the timeframe (max. 120min) of the course and planned bio break schedule (as seen above).
- Inform participants that if they have to leave the course for any reason, then they should do so in a non-disruptive manner.
- Encourage participants to ask relevant questions at suitable points, preferably at the end of each section or when asked to.
- Encourage participants to provide course feedback, especially with respects to new players and their experiences on the primary server.
- Encourage participants to lead other players to take the mout course.
Section 2 - Nature of Urban Operations [--]
Urban Operations are defined as warfare in urban areas such as towns, villages, cities and capitals and differ entirely from warfare in open terrain. UO is considered one of the most cost and menpower intensive operation types available in warfare and is at the same time extremly dangerous in its conduction. In general UOs are conducted as multinational long term undertakings.
In the world of ArmA at United Operations we neither have the required manpower nor the necessary server power to simulate such massive operations. In favor of the gameplay most scenarios are cut in size and length tremendously to fit our gaming purposes.
[read as printed]
[UOs are are usually only conducted when the target is of high strategic, tactical and representitive value or if the urban area is in the path of a maneuver or assault operation. In general all UOs are only executed if the respective Army Commanders determine the operation essential to their mission accomplishment as UOs are basically a full width application of nearly all available military operations on the ground and in the air.
Mission Commanders planning UOs must: understand the nature of urbanized environment, determine deceisive points and centers of gravity for the operation, mass combat power effects to engage and take the deceisive points, shape their operation to secure major centers of gravity inbefore the enemy or take them from the enemy by applying precise force.] 1:30
[read as printed]
[UOs of all size follow the same requirements of planning and knowledge.
Each leader needs to consider the following points to be prepared for an urban operation:
- Man-made construction and/or high population density are the dominant feature.
- The physical aspects of the urban area that is to be engaged, as in: topography, traffic connection and infrastructure.
- Identification of critical areas which do not necessarily need to be located inside of the actual combat area.
- By combining these and above information the leader needs to asses the threat the enemy posses in said environment.] 1:45
[read as printed]
[Against a large enemy in a major urban area with a large civil population present, offensive operations will require a greater commitment of resources compared to other environments. Urban offensive operations will also incur the greatest risks to the own forces and noncombatants of any kind. Within defensive operations, friendly and enemy forces conduct tactical offensive UOs, such as counterattacks to maintain the initiative or raids to eliminate enemy forces that disrupt ongoing defensive operations.] 1:30
[read as printed]
[Defensive UOs are shaping operations within a larger major military operation. Leaders usually integrate defensive urban operations into their planning to provide protection to specific areas of value or to stabalize ongoing operations of all kinds with securing flanks and convoys, preventing counter assault operations or breakouts by enemy forces. For defensive operations to work as expected the leader conducting this operation needs to be aware of any available option enhancing the combat power of his forces in the conflict. If no such options are available in the area that needs defens, options need to be created by ressources and supplies or the position needs to be abandoned or secured by assault of the next major point of gravity owned by the enemy.] 2:15
Section 3 - Urban Characteristics [--]
Complexity of Urban Environment
There are multiple factors which make each urban environment unique, even though some locations might share similar characteristics:
- Economic Level
- Culture of Inhabitants
- Buildings materials
As all of these points change drastically from location to location leaders operating in such areas are faced with the most difficult terrain imagineable.
Like in all other scenarios too, the side that can better and faster understand the terrain and its features is more likely to succeed in UOs.
The Urban Terrain
Eventhough complex and difficult to process, the terrain is the most recognizable aspect of an urban environment.<>To fully comprehend its aspects though, fully understanding its multidimensional nature is a mandatory requirement. Man-made and natural features intertwine in so many areas including their effects on military forces and materials that describing a picture as "the typical urban terrain" is not possible.
In comparrison to bare ground urban terrain may leave no impression on its real inflictions when looked upon at a map. But once visiting the third dimension, it becomes obvious that, even though not much two dimensional ground is used, height, width and depth of each single structure pose excessive impact onto the urban battefield. A single skyscraper with all its floors might end up taking as much ground level to cover as an entire district.
The warfare in urban terrain may have immediate impact on all forces when entire buildings get destroyed, reference points disappear, rubble suddenly blocking important supply or reinforcement routes, buildings being booby trapped while unobserved and other hardly discoverable situations. The difficulty of urban warfare becomes imaginable when desribing the task of leadership in such situations: At all times it needs to be considered what is happening inside, outside, below, above, back and in front of the current fighting position. The value of Situational Awareness in urban warfare is higher than the value of technological level of used equipment or man power available.
While in other environments leaders usually only have to consider depth, width and height of their area of operation in the areas of surface and air, leaders operating in urban environments need to consider areas including internal spaces, floors and levels, external and internal supersurfaces and tops of any kind of structure.
As usual the air is used as rapid avenue of approach for insertion, reinforcments or resupply and provides perfect circumstances for reconnaisance, observation and attack. Obstacles in this level are dense contruction of high buildings, powerlines, bridges and towers and their abbility to limit the aircrafts line of sight to designated or sofar unknown targets. Especially MANPADS and medium to high caliber ammunitions start to become a real threat to aviation assets in urban environments.
Surface areas apply to exterior ground-level areas, such as parking lots, airfields, highways, streets, sidewalks, fields, and parks. They often provide primary avenues of approach and the means for rapid advance. However, buildings and other structures often canalize forces moving along them. As such, obstacles on urban surface areas usually have more effect than those in open terrain since bypass often requires entering and transiting buildings or radical changes to selected routes.
Larger open areas such as stadiums, sports fields, school playgrounds, and parking lots are often critical areas during urban operations. These areas provide suitable aircraft landing and pickup zones and artillery firing locations. They can provide logistic support areas and aerial resupply possibilities because they are often centrally located.
Large open areas and immense or unusually shaped structures within urban areas are often easier to see and can serve as excellent target reference points from which to shift or control artillery or aerial fires.
These areas include the internal floors or levels (internal supersurface areas) and external roofs or tops of any vertical structures. They can provide cover and concealment, limit or enhance observation and fields of fire and restrict, canalize, or block movement. Though usually avoided secured rooftops in urban area might provide excellent approach avenues for insertion of forces. The biggest threat in any internal supersurface are mines, trip wires and hidden ambush points. Sometimes buildings need to be cleared level by level before friendly forces can progress advance on the surface level.
There are four major urban patterns: satellite, network, linear and segmented.
1st BIO BREAK 
Section 4 - Urban Threat Potential [--]
Section 5 - Risk Reduction Measures [--]
Section 6 - Conducting Small Unit Urban Operations [--]
2nd BIO BREAK 
Section 7 - MOUT Practice - Room Clearing [--]
Section 8 - MOUT Practice - Village Theater [--]
Section 9 - MOUT Practice - City Theater [--]
- Individual First Aid Kit
- Provide tags to attendees on teamspeak.
- Forums Post with names of tags assigned and people who have to reattend.
- Change Sign Up Thread Title to [COMPLETED].
- Lock the Sign Up Thread / Send Azzwort a message to lock the Sign Up Thread.
- Ask for positive feedback or compliments to be posted in the UOTC feedback thread (with link) Emphasize that all criticism or suggestions for improvement should be posted as a PM reply.